A62    
  Steels for pressure vessels and boilers   Last update: 2011-4-5

The fundamental property of steels for pressure vessels is their ability to withstand high pressure at different temperatures.

 

Properties
   

Steels for pressure vessels and boilers differ from other carbon-manganese structural steels due to their high resistance to pressure at all temperatures (ambient, low or high).

 

Advantages
   

The fundamental property of steels for pressure vessels is their ability to withstand high pressure at different temperatures. They have good weldability, as well as excellent toughness, and are suitable for normalisation annealing and stress-relief annealing (both treatments neutralise local hardening caused by welding).

 

Applications
   

Steels for pressure vessels are mainly used to manufacture boilers, drums, pressure or steam piping, industrial thermal vessels and heat exchangers. These steels are suitable for mechanical forming and welding.

 

Brand correspondence
   
 
Steels for simple pressure vessels (EN 10207:2005)
 EN 10028-2:2009EN 10207:2005EN 10028-3:2009EN 10028-5:2009PN-81/H-92123:1981ASTMJIS G3115
P235S EN 10207 P235S     
P265S EN 10207 P265S     
P275SL EN 10207 P275S     
 
Steels with specified properties at elevated temperatures (EN 10028-2:2009)
 EN 10028-2:2009EN 10207:2005EN 10028-3:2009EN 10028-5:2009PN-81/H-92123:1981ASTMJIS G3115
P235GH+N EN 10028-2P235GH   (St36K)A285 gr.C/A414 gr.CSPV 24
P265GH+N EN 10028-2P265GH   (St41K)A414 gr.E 
P295GH+N EN 10028-2P295GH   (St44K)A299/A414 gr.F 
P355GH+N EN 10028-2P355GH    A414 gr.GSPV 36
16Mo3 EN 10028-216Mo3      
 
Weldable fine grain steels, normalised (EN 10028-3:2009)
 EN 10028-2:2009EN 10207:2005EN 10028-3:2009EN 10028-5:2009PN-81/H-92123:1981ASTMJIS G3115
P275NH+N EN 10028-3  P275NH    
P275NL1+N EN 10028-3  P275NL1    
P275NL2+N EN 10028-3  P275NL2    
P355N+N EN 10028-3  P355N  A737 gr.B 
P355NH+N EN 10028-3  P355NH  A737 gr.B 
P355NL1+N EN 10028-3  P355NL1    
P355NL2+N EN 10028-3  P355NL2    
 
Weldable fine grain steels, thermomechanically rolled (EN 10028-5:2009)
 EN 10028-2:2009EN 10207:2005EN 10028-3:2009EN 10028-5:2009PN-81/H-92123:1981ASTMJIS G3115
P420M EN 10028-5   P420M   
P420ML1 EN 10028-5   P420ML1   
() Closest grade as no fully equivalent grade exists.


 

Dimensions
   

Mill finish
Thickness (mm)Min widthP235GH+N EN 10028-2, P235S EN 10207P265GH+N EN 10028-2, P265S EN 10207P275SL EN 10207, P275NH+N EN 10028-3, P275NL1+N EN 10028-3, P275NL2+N EN 10028-3P295GH+N EN 10028-2P355N+N EN 10028-3, P355NH+N EN 10028-3, P355GH+N EN 10028-2P355NL1+N EN 10028-3, P355NL2+N EN 10028-3P420M EN 10028-5P420ML1 EN 10028-516Mo3 EN 10028-2
Max widthMax widthMax widthMax widthMax widthMax widthMax widthMax widthMax width
1.50 ≤ th < 1.60800130012001320-----1000
1.60 ≤ th < 1.70140012501370
1.70 ≤ th < 1.801490130014201250
1.80 ≤ th < 1.901540146014701250
1.90 ≤ th < 2.001590152015201050
2.00 ≤ th < 2.101630162016201440125011801500
2.10 ≤ th < 2.201660166016601200
2.20 ≤ th < 2.301720172017201240
2.30 ≤ th < 2.401780178017801330128013101310
2.40 ≤ th < 2.501840184018401320
2.50 ≤ th < 2.60190019001900154014001400140014001750
2.60 ≤ th < 2.70210021002100
2.70 ≤ th < 2.8014401440
2.80 ≤ th < 2.901480148014501450
2.90 ≤ th < 3.0021502150215015301530
3.00 ≤ th < 3.1016802040204015201520
3.10 ≤ th < 3.2020802080
3.20 ≤ th < 3.302120212015501550
3.30 ≤ th < 3.4021402140
3.40 ≤ th < 3.502150215015701570
3.50 ≤ th < 4.0018002050
4.00 ≤ th < 4.5018301830
4.50 ≤ th < 5.001900
5.00 ≤ th < 5.90213021302130
5.90 ≤ th < 6.002130
6.00 ≤ th < 6.50-
6.50 ≤ th < 7.00-
7.00 ≤ th < 8.002130
8.00 ≤ th < 10.002130
10.00 ≤ th < 13.001570
13.00 ≤ th < 15.00193019301930
15.00 ≤ th < 16.0013702140

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Mechanical properties
   

For these steels, a tensile test at room temperature shall be carried out in accordance with EN 10002-1, generally using a proportional test piece of gauge length Lo = 5.65√So (So = initial cross-sectional area of the test piece). Test pieces with a constant gauge length may be used, in which case the elongation value shall be converted in accordance with EN ISO 2566-1.

 

The minimum impact energy values specified apply, even if they are not to be verified in the case of product thicknesses < 6 mm. Where minimum impact energy values are specified for several temperatures, verification of the impact energy, unless otherwise agreed, shall be carried out at the temperature for which the value of 27 J is specified. Where the minimum impact energy value specified at the lowest temperature is higher than 27 J, this higher value shall be verified.


 
Steels for simple pressure vessels (EN 10207:2005)
 
Direction
Thickness (mm)
Re (MPa)
Rm (MPa)
A80 (%)
A 5.65√So (%)
KV 20°C (J)
KV 0°C (J)
KV -20°C (J)
KV -40°C (J)
KV -50°C (J)
P235S EN 10207L1.5 - 3--≥ 21------
3 - 6-≥ 26
6 - 16≥ 28
T1.5 - 3≥ 235360 - 480≥ 19------
3 - 16-≥ 24
P265S EN 10207L1.5 - 3--≥ 18------
3 - 6-≥ 22
6 - 16≥ 28
T1.5 - 3≥ 265410 - 530≥ 16------
3 - 16-≥ 20
P275SL EN 10207L1.5 - 3--≥ 20------
3 - 6-≥ 24
6 - 16≥ 28
T1.5 - 3≥ 275390 - 510≥ 18------
3 - 16-≥ 22
 
Steels with specified properties at elevated temperatures (EN 10028-2:2009)
 
Direction
Thickness (mm)
Re (MPa)
Rm (MPa)
A80 (%)
A 5.65√So (%)
KV 20°C (J)
KV 0°C (J)
KV -20°C (J)
KV -40°C (J)
KV -50°C (J)
P235GH+N EN 10028-2T1.5 - 6≥ 235360 - 480-≥ 24-----
6 - 16≥ 40≥ 34≥ 27
P265GH+N EN 10028-2T1.5 - 6≥ 265410 - 530-≥ 22-----
6 - 16≥ 40≥ 34≥ 27
P295GH+N EN 10028-2T1.5 - 6≥ 295460 - 580-≥ 21-----
6 - 16≥ 40≥ 34≥ 27
P355GH+N EN 10028-2T2.3 - 3≥ 355510 - 650-------
3 - 6≥ 20
6 - 16≥ 40≥ 34≥ 27
16Mo3 EN 10028-2T1.5 - 6≥ 275440 - 590-≥ 22-----
6 - 16≥ 31
 
Weldable fine grain steels, normalised (EN 10028-3:2009)
 
Direction
Thickness (mm)
Re (MPa)
Rm (MPa)
A80 (%)
A 5.65√So (%)
KV 20°C (J)
KV 0°C (J)
KV -20°C (J)
KV -40°C (J)
KV -50°C (J)
P275NH+N EN 10028-3L6 - 16----≥ 75≥ 65≥ 45--
T1.5 - 6≥ 275390 - 510-≥ 24-----
6 - 16≥ 50≥ 40≥ 30
P275NL1+N EN 10028-3L6 - 16----≥ 80≥ 70≥ 50≥ 40≥ 30
T1.5 - 6≥ 275390 - 510-≥ 24-----
6 - 16≥ 60≥ 50≥ 35≥ 27
P275NL2+N EN 10028-3L6 - 16----≥ 85≥ 75≥ 55≥ 45≥ 42
T1.5 - 6≥ 275390 - 510-≥ 24-----
6 - 16≥ 70≥ 60≥ 40≥ 30≥ 27
P355N+N EN 10028-3L6 - 16----≥ 75≥ 65≥ 45--
T1.7 - 6≥ 355490 - 630-≥ 22-----
6 - 16≥ 50≥ 40≥ 30
P355NH+N EN 10028-3L6 - 16----≥ 75≥ 65≥ 45--
T1.7 - 6≥ 355490 - 630-≥ 22-----
6 - 16≥ 50≥ 40≥ 30
P355NL1+N EN 10028-3L6 - 16----≥ 80≥ 70≥ 50≥ 40≥ 30
T1.7 - 6≥ 355490 - 630-≥ 22-----
6 - 16≥ 60≥ 50≥ 35≥ 27
P355NL2+N EN 10028-3L6 - 16----≥ 85≥ 75≥ 55≥ 45≥ 42
T1.7 - 6≥ 355490 - 630-≥ 22-----
6 - 16≥ 70≥ 60≥ 40≥ 30≥ 27
 
Weldable fine grain steels, thermomechanically rolled (EN 10028-5:2009)
 
Direction
Thickness (mm)
Re (MPa)
Rm (MPa)
A80 (%)
A 5.65√So (%)
KV 20°C (J)
KV 0°C (J)
KV -20°C (J)
KV -40°C (J)
KV -50°C (J)
P420M EN 10028-5T2 - 6≥ 420500 - 660-≥ 19-----
6 - 16≥ 60≥ 40≥ 27
P420ML1 EN 10028-5T2 - 6≥ 420500 - 660-≥ 19-----
6 - 16≥ 60≥ 40≥ 27


 

Mechanical characteristics at high temperature Re (MPa)
   

Optional test. The test shall be carried out at 300C.


 
Steels for simple pressure vessels (EN 10207:2005)
Steel grade Thickness (mm)
50°C
100°C
150°C
200°C
250°C
300°C
350°C
400°C
450°C
500°C
P235S EN 10207 1.5 < th ≤ 16 - 171 162 153 135 117 - - - -
P265S EN 10207 1.5 < th ≤ 16 194 185 176 158 140
P275SL EN 10207 1.5 < th ≤ 16 221 203 159 132
 
Steels with specified properties at elevated temperatures (EN 10028-2:2009)
Steel grade Thickness (mm)
50°C
100°C
150°C
200°C
250°C
300°C
350°C
400°C
450°C
500°C
P235GH+N EN 10028-2 1.5 < th ≤ 16 227 214 198 182 167 153 142 133 - -
P265GH+N EN 10028-2 1.5 < th ≤ 16 256 241 223 205 188 173 160 150
P295GH+N EN 10028-2 1.5 < th ≤ 16 285 268 249 228 209 192 178 167
P355GH+N EN 10028-2 2.3 < th ≤ 16 343 323 299 275 252 232 214 202
16Mo3 EN 10028-2 1.5 < th ≤ 16 273 264 250 233 213 194 175 159 147 141
 
Weldable fine grain steels, normalised (EN 10028-3:2009)
Steel grade Thickness (mm)
50°C
100°C
150°C
200°C
250°C
300°C
350°C
400°C
450°C
500°C
P275NH+N EN 10028-3 1.5 < th ≤ 16 266 250 232 213 195 179 166 156 - -
P355NH+N EN 10028-3 1.7 < th ≤ 16 343 323 299 275 252 232 214 202


 

Chemical composition
   
 
Steels for simple pressure vessels (EN 10207:2005)
  Notes
C (%)
Mn (%)
P (%)
S (%)
Si (%)
Al (%)
Cu (%)
Cr (%)
Ni (%)
Mo (%)
Nb (%)
V (%)
Ti (%)
N (%)
Ni+Cr+Cu+Mo (%)
P235S EN 10207   ≤ 0.160 0.40 - 1.20 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.35 ≥ 0.020 - - - - - - - - -
P265S EN 10207   ≤ 0.200 0.50 - 1.50 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.020 - - - - - - - - -
P275SL EN 10207   ≤ 0.160 0.50 - 1.50 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.020 - - - - - - - - -
 
Steels with specified properties at elevated temperatures (EN 10028-2:2009)
  Notes
C (%)
Mn (%)
P (%)
S (%)
Si (%)
Al (%)
Cu (%)
Cr (%)
Ni (%)
Mo (%)
Nb (%)
V (%)
Ti (%)
N (%)
Ni+Cr+Cu+Mo (%)
P235GH+N EN 10028-2 1+2 ≤ 0.160 0.60 - 1.20 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.35 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 ≤ 0.70
P265GH+N EN 10028-2 1+2 ≤ 0.200 0.80 - 1.40 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 ≤ 0.70
P295GH+N EN 10028-2 1+2 0.080 - 0.200 0.90 - 1.50 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 ≤ 0.70
P355GH+N EN 10028-2 2 0.100 - 0.220 1.10 - 1.70 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.60 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.040 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 ≤ 0.70
16Mo3 EN 10028-2   0.120 - 0.200 0.40 - 0.90 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.35 - ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 0.25 - 0.35 - - - ≤ 0.012 -
1. For product thicknesses < 6 mm, a minimum manganese content 0.20% less than the specified value is allowed.
2. A ratio Al/N≥ 2 shall be applied.
 
Weldable fine grain steels, normalised (EN 10028-3:2009)
  Notes
C (%)
Mn (%)
P (%)
S (%)
Si (%)
Al (%)
Cu (%)
Cr (%)
Ni (%)
Mo (%)
Nb (%)
V (%)
Ti (%)
N (%)
Ni+Cr+Cu+Mo (%)
P275NH+N EN 10028-3 1+2+3+4 ≤ 0.160 0.80 - 1.50 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 -
P275NL1+N EN 10028-3 1+2+3+4 ≤ 0.160 0.80 - 1.50 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.008 ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 -
P275NL2+N EN 10028-3 1+2+3+4 ≤ 0.160 0.80 - 1.50 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.005 ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 -
P355N+N EN 10028-3 2+3+5 ≤ 0.180 1.10 - 1.70 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.50 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.100 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 -
P355NH+N EN 10028-3 2+3+5 ≤ 0.180 1.10 - 1.70 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.50 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.100 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 -
P355NL1+N EN 10028-3 2+3+5 ≤ 0.180 1.10 - 1.70 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.008 ≤ 0.50 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.100 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 -
P355NL2+N EN 10028-3 2+3+5 ≤ 0.180 1.10 - 1.70 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.005 ≤ 0.50 ≥ 0.020 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.30 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.08 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.100 ≤ 0.030 ≤ 0.012 -
1. For product thicknesses < 6 mm, a minimum manganese content of 0.60% is allowed.
2. A ratio Al/N≥ 2 shall be applied.
3. The sum of the percentages by mass of the three elements chromium, copper and molybdenum shall not exceed 0.45%.
4. The sum of the percentages by mass of the three elements niobium, titanium and vanadium shall not exceed 0.05%.
5. The sum of the percentages by mass of the three elements niobium, titanium and vanadium shall not exceed 0.12%.
 
Weldable fine grain steels, thermomechanically rolled (EN 10028-5:2009)
  Notes
C (%)
Mn (%)
P (%)
S (%)
Si (%)
Al (%)
Cu (%)
Cr (%)
Ni (%)
Mo (%)
Nb (%)
V (%)
Ti (%)
N (%)
Ni+Cr+Cu+Mo (%)
P420M EN 10028-5 1+2 ≤ 0.160 ≤ 1.70 ≤ 0.025 ≤ 0.010 ≤ 0.50 ≥ 0.020 - - ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.20 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.100 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.020 -
P420ML1 EN 10028-5 1+2 ≤ 0.160 ≤ 1.70 ≤ 0.020 ≤ 0.008 ≤ 0.50 ≥ 0.020 - - ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.20 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.100 ≤ 0.050 ≤ 0.020 -
1. The sum of the percentages by mass of the three elements chromium, copper and molybdenum shall not exceed 0.60%.
2. The sum of the percentages by mass of the three elements niobium, titanium and vanadium shall not exceed 0.15%.


   
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